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Jarak Tanam Menentukan Jumlah Populasi

Upaya peningkatan produktivitas padi dengan hanya menggunakan varietas unggul berdaya hasil tinggi tidak akan efektif tanpa diikuti oleh teknik budi daya spesifik lokasi, terutama pengaturan jarak tanam yang optimal.

Perbedaan jarak tanam sering kali tidak mendapat perhatian dalam cara menentukan produktivitas padi berdasarkan ubinan.

Jarak tanam yang menentukan populasi tanaman per satuan luas bervariasi antarpetani dan antarlokasi. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan dugaan produktivitas padi per satuan luas menjadi tidak akurat.

Kesalahan dalam pendugaan hasil padi per satuan luas berdampak terhadap kesalahan data produksi nasional. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan standarisasi ubinan, pengukuran populasi tanaman (jumlah rumpun) per satuan luas, dan konversi gabah hasil dari ubinan ke hektar berdasarkan jarak tanam padi di lapangan.

Produksi padi ditentukan oleh berbagai aspek, termasuk jarak tanam yang menentukan populasi tanaman di lapangan. Jarak tanam dan populasi tanaman mempengaruhi penangkapan radiasi surya oleh individu tanaman, terutama daun untuk fotosintesis, efektivitas penyerapan hara oleh akar tanaman, kebutuhan air tanaman, sirkulasi udara terutama CO2 untuk fotosintesis dan O2 untuk hasil fotosintesis, ketersediaan ruang yang menentukan populasi gulma, dan iklim mikro (kelembaban dan suhu udara) di bawah kanopi, yang juga berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan organisme pengganggu tanaman (OPT).

Keenam faktor tersebut berpengaruh terhadap kualitas pertumbuhan individu rumpun tanaman padi. Kombinasi antara pertimbangan ilmiah untuk mencapai hasil terbaik/tertinggi dan pertimbangan teknis (mudah, murah, dan sesuai keinginan petani) menyebabkan terjadinya keragaman penerapan jarak tanam di lapangan.

Pengalaman menunjukkan adanya berbagai jarak tanam padi, mulai dari tegel 20 cm x 20 cm; 25 cm x 25 cm; 27,5 cm x 27,5 cm; dan 30 cm x 30 cm hingga sistem jajar legowo.

Tanam jajar legowo merupakan salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan populasi tanaman dan cukup efektif mengurangi serangan hama tikus, keong mas, dan keracunan besi. Jajar legowo (legowo/jarwo) adalah pengosongan satu baris tanaman setiap dua atau lebih baris dan merapatkan dalam barisan tanaman, sehingga dikenal legowo 2:1 apabila satu baris kosong diselingi oleh dua baris tanaman padi atau 4:1 bila diselingi empat baris tanaman.

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